10 shafts are great for weaving 8-shaft patterns and a plain weave selvedge or a plain weave block to separate pattern blocks.
Also, excellent for 2-block designs in 5-shaft satin.
I love weaving on a 10-shaft loom, most recently I wove a series of satin damask scarves. I used 2 blocks, each using 5 shafts. When I wove off the first warp in silver grey, I decided to tie on a second warp in the same design, this time in black. That one is still on the loom, but I’ll have photos soon.
As far as I know, pre-AVL Ahrens looms didn’t have manuals officially published, since many were one-of-kind and made for the new owner’s specifications. I have seen some assembled by their users and passed on in single copies.
One thing you can try is to look here: http://www.avlusa.com/resources/library/ These are for current AVL looms, if you find the one closest to your loom it might be very helpful if not completely the same.
Or if you can upload some photos and a description of your loom, perhaps members of this forum can help you out!